Tuesday, January 7, 2014

The Latest PISA Result and Shadow Education

The result of 2012 PISA (Programme of International Student Assessment) was published in the early December, 2013. <http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results-overview.pdf>

 I'm not sure to what extent this kind of international comparison (competition) is meaningfu, but I'm sure that few people are aware of the fact that all these high-performing Asian countries see the proliferation of shadow education (supplementary education or private tutoring) in their own countries, though media people are still fussing about the strength of Asians in the assessment.

According to a report of Asian Development Bank in 2012: 

*In China, the 2004 Urban Household Education and Employment Survey of 4,772 households indicated that 73.8% of primary students were receiving supplementary lessons, including in non-academic subjects. Proportions in lower and upper secondary were 65.6% and 53.5%...

*In Hong Kong, a 2009 telephone survey of 521 students found that 72.5% of upper primary students had received tutoring; while proportions in middle and senior secondary were 81.9% and 85.5%, respectively.

*In South Korea, in 2008, 87.9% of elementary school pupils were estimated to be receiving tutoring. In middle school the proportion was 72.5%; and in general high school it was 60.5%.

*In Singapore, a 2008 newspaper report stated that 97% of students polled at the primary, middle, and senior secondary levels were receiving tutoring.


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